Many ancient and modern people reuse the architecture and other material culture of “others” (enemies, ancient peoples, ancestors, etc). The overt reuse of fragments associated with “others” suggests that something is being communicated–just what that something is varies cross-culturally.

Brenk, Beat. 1987. Spolia from Constantine to Charlemagne: Aesthetics versus Ideology. Studies on Art and Archeology in Honor of Ernst Kitzinger on His Seventy-Fifth Birthday, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 41:103-109. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington DC.

Gonnella, Julia. 2010. Columns and Hieroglyphs: “Magic Spolia” in Medieval Islamic Architecture of Northern Syria. Muqarnas: An Annual on the Visual Culture of the Islamic 27(1):103–120.

Greenhalgh, Michael. 2011. Spolia: A Definition in Ruins. In Reuse Value: Spolia and Appropriation in Art and Architecture, from Constantine to Sherrie Levine, edited by Richard Brilliant and Dale Kinney, pp. 75-95. Ashgate Publishing Limited, Surrey, UK.

Moss 2008 Appropriating the past Romanesque Spolia in Seventeenth-Century Ireland

Wren, Linnea, Travis Nygard, and Kaylee Spencer. 2015.       Establishing and Translating Maya Spaces at Tonina and Ocosingo: How Indigenous Portraits were Moved, Mutilated, and Made Christian in New Spain. In Memory Traces : Analyzing Sacred Space at Five Mesoamerican Sites, edited by Cynthia Kristan-Graham and Laura M. Amrhein, pp. 169-202. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.

Brilliant 2011 Authenticity and Alienation